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A Description and Analysis of the Japanese World Map Bankoku sōzu in Its Version of 1671 and Some Thoughts on the Sources of the Original Bankoku sōzu

Pages 15 - 59


Universitt Salzburg

1 Unno Kazutaka, “Cartography in Japan”, in J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds.), The History of Cartography. Volume 2, Book 2. Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies (Chicago: The Univ. of Chicago Pr., 1994), p. 404.

2 For an introduction into Japanese cartography in English, ibid.; Hugh Cortazzi, Isles of Gold. Antique Maps of Japan (New York u.a.: Weatherhill, 1983); Nanba Matsutaro, Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno (eds.), Old Maps in Japan (Ōsaka: Sōgensha, 1973).

3 For a comparison of the different versions, see Unno Kazutaka 海野一隆, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu’ no seiritsu to rufu 正保刊「万国総図」の成立と流布”, in Arisaka Takamichi 有坂隆道 (ed.), Nihon yōgakushi no kenkyū 10 曰本洋学史の研宄 10 (Ōsaka: Sōgensha, 1991), pp. 9–75; Unno Kazutaka, “‘Bankoku sekai igyōzu’ ni tsuite 「万国世界異形図」について”, in Tōzai chizu bunka kōshōshi kenkyū 東西地図文化交史研宄 (Ōsaka: Seibundō, 2003), pp. 384–397.

4 Coloured scans of the Tokyo and Munich versions are on the internet. The British Museum version is reproduced in black and white in a paper by Helen Wallis. See Kokuritsu kokkai toshokan 国立国会図書 館, “Bankoku sōzu 万国総図”, in Kokuritsu kokkai toshokan dejitaruka shiryō 国立国会図書館デヅタル化 資料, (last accessed 14.10.2013); Bayerische Staats-bibliothek Bankoku sozu – Weltkarte mit Abbildungen der verschiedenen Völker – BSB Cod.jap. 4, (last accessed 14.10.2013); Hellen Wallis, “The Influence of Father Ricci on Far Eastern Cartography”, Imago Mundi 19 (1965), pp. 38–45, plate 7.

5 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 40; N. H. N. Mody, A Collection of Nagasaki Colour Prints and Paintings. Showing the Influence of Chinese and European Art on That of Japan (Rutland, Vermont, Tokyo: Chalres E. Tuttle Company, 1969), plate 24.

6 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 40.

7 Ibid., p. 71, n. 39; Sakaki Hyakusen 彭城百川, Kaisei Nagasaki zu 改正長崎圖 (Kyōto, 1745). A scan is on the internet site of Waseda Univ. Library: Nagasaki zu, accessed 14.10.2013).

8 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 71, n. 39.

9 Some of the kanbun markings are missing or wrong. The first yori 自 should be followed by a “one” instead of a “two”, the first nigatsu 二月 should be followed by a “two”. A “one” is missing after the first hachigatsu, a “two” after the second itatte 至. This is not necessarily an author's error but could be caused by bad printing.

10 A photo of the map was kindly sent to me by the Shimonoseki City Chōfu Museum.

11 For a high quality scan of a version in the Univ. of British Columbia, see UBC Library, “Shōhō zu”, in UBC Library Digital Collections, 2009, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

12 The print of this version now in the Vatican is reproduced in Pasquale D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese del P. Matteo Ricci S. I. Terza ed., Pechino, 1602; conservato presso La Biblioteca Vaticana (Cittá del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1938).

13 For a scan, see Tōhoku Library, “Konyo bankoku zenzu 坤輿萬國全圖” in Image Database of the Kano Collection, 1999, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

14 For the atlas in the Library of Congress, see The Library of Congress, “Theatrum orbis terrarum”, in Map Collections, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

15 For a scan of the version in the National Library of Australia, see National Library of Australia, “Orbis terrarium typus de integro multis in locis emendatus”, in DigitalCollections Maps, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

16 This map was reproduced by Günther Schilder in Three World Maps by Francois van Den Hoeye of 1661, Willem Janszoon (Blaeu) of 1607, Claes Janszoon Visscher of 1650 (Amsterdam: Nico Israel, 1981).

17 This map was reproduced by Günther Schilder in Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica VIII (Alphen aan den Rijn: Uitgeverij Canaletto, 2007).

18 M. J. Klaproth, “Notice d'une mappemonde japonaise, conservée dans le Musée Britannique à Londres”, in Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie. Contenant des recherches historiques, géographiques et phonologiques sur les peuples de l'Orient. Tome troisième (Paris: Libraire Orientale de Dondey-Dupré Père et Fils, 1828), pp. 471–481.

19 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese.

20 Huang Shijian 黃時璧 and Gong Yingyan 冀纓晏, Li Madou shijie ditu yanjiu 利瑪竇世界地圖研宄 (Shanghai: Shanghai Guji Chubanshe, 2004).

21 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola VI.

22 Those maps include Ortelius' world map of 1570 (as Giurumatas) and Plancius' world map of 1594 (as Giurumotas).

23 Mary-Elizabeth Reeve, “Regional Interaction in the Western Amazon: The Early Colonial Encounter and the Jesuit Years: 1538–1767”, Ethnohistory 41.1 (1993), p. 109.

24 Klaproth accidently read this name as “Omadaha” and gave “Quaratamba sur le Maragnon” as explanation. See Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 481. Maragnon is Marañón, a source of the Amazonas, and Quaratamba a place, found, for example, as “Vratamba” on Plancius' world map of 1594.

25 Heidi King, “Gold in Ancient America”, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin new ser. 59.4 (2002), p. 6.

26 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola VI; Huang Shijian and Gong Yingyan, Li Madou shijie ditu yanjiu, p. 188.

27 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 481.

28 Huang Shijian and Gong Yingyan, Li Madou shijie ditu yanjiu, p. 197.

29 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 481.

30 Charles W. Hackett, “The Delimination of Political Jurisdications in Spanish North America to 1535”, The Hispanic American Historical Review 1.1 (1918), p. 45.

31 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 481.

32 Raymond H. Ramsay, No Longer on the Map. Discovering Places That Never Were (New York: The Viking Pr., 1972), p. 244.

33 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 480.

34 Ibid.

35 Merriam-Webster, (ed.), Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (Springfield: Merriam-Webster Inc., 1984), s.v. Norumbega.

36 Dave D. Davis, “Places Real and Imagined”, in Matthew H. Edney and Irwin D. Novak (eds.), Reading the World. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Pieter van Den Keere's Map, Nova Totius Orbis Geographica Ac Hydrographica Tabula (Amsterdam 1608/36) (Portland: Osher Map Library and Smith Center for Cartographic Education, Univ. of Southern Maine, 2001), p. 33.

37 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 481.

38 Ibid., p. 480.

39 Ramsay, No Longer on the Map, pp. 150–151.

40 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XX.

41 Gustav Schlegel, “Problèmes géographiques. Les peuples étrangers chez les historiens chinois”, T'oung Pao 4.4 (1893), pp. 335–337.

42 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 474.

43 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XVIII, p. 225.

44 Lionel Giles, “Translations from the Chinese World Map of Father Ricci (Continued)”, The Geographical Journal 53.1 (1919), p. 22.

45 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, p. 206 n. 102; Paul Gallez, “Walsperger and His Knowledge of the Patagonian Giants, 1448”, Imago Mundi 33 (1981), p. 92.

46 Gyōki maps are maps of Japan which are said to have their origin in the work of the monk Gyōki 行基. The earliest extant Gyōki map dates from the second half of the 13th century. Such maps are characterized by their round form. The purpose of these maps is not to exactly represent the geography of Japan, but to locate the different provinces. Until the mid-16th century the curve of Honshū was only hinted at. See, for example, Unno Kazutaka, “Cartography in Japan”, pp. 367–369.

47 Merriam-Webster, Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, s.v. Djakarta.

48 Ibid., s.v. Banten.

49 See Roderich Ptak, “Asian Trade in Cloves, circa 1500: Quantities and Trade Routes – A Synopsis of Portuguese and Other Sources”, in Francis A. Dutra and João Camilo dos Santos (eds.), Proceedings of the International Colloquium on the Portuguese and the Pacific. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, October 1993. Publications of the Center of Portuguese Studies 10 (Santa Barbara: Center for Portuguese Studies, Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, 1995), pp. 149–169.

50 Ronald P. Toby, “Three Realms / Myriad Countries: An 'Ethnography of Other and the Re-bounding of Japan, 1550–1570”, in Kai-wing Chow et al. (eds.), Constructing Nationhood in Modern East Asia (Ann Arbor: The Univ. of Michigan Pr., 2001), p. 42 n. 39; Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 16.

51 Blaeu's map for example labels these dots I. d. Praçel.

52 The first kanji is easily confused with the character fang 方. It is also noteworthy that the simplified version of the kanji and not the then usual version wan 萬 was used See Nakamura Hiroshi 中村拓, “Nanban byōbu sekaizu no kenkyū 南蛮屏風世界図の研究 ”, Kirishitan kenkyū キリㇱタン研究 9 (1964), p. 143.

53 Ibid. As Nakamura used the Japanese reformed kanji throughout his paper, it cannot be determined for sure whether on the Nanban maps the kanji appears in its simplified or traditional version.

54 Jiang Feng 蒋风, (ed.), Xinbian wenshidi cidian 新编文史地藉典 (Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe; electronic edition 中华数字书苑 China Digital Library, 1990), s.v. Wanli changsha 万里长沙. For a Western study, see Roderich Ptak, “The Coral Islands in the South China Sea according to Chinese Sources (Song to Ming)”, in Avelino de Freitas de Meneses (coord.), Portos, escalas e ilhéus no relacionamento entre o Ocidente e o Oriente. Actas…, 2 vols. (Lisbon: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugeses; Ponta Delgada: Universidade dos Açores, 2001), II, pp. 337–358.

55 Shinmura Izuru 新村出, (ed.), Kōjien 広辞苑 (Tōkyō: Iwanami Shoten, 1998), s.v. Amakawa 髙砂.

56 Ibid., s.v. Takasago 髙麗.

57 Ibid., s.v. Kōrai 髙麗.

58 For example on Ortelius' map of Asia, Asiæ Nova Descriptio, of 1597, reproduced by C. J. Schüler in Die Geschichte der Kartographie (Paris: Editions Place des Victoires, 2010), pp. 126–127.

59 For example on Blaeu's 1607 world map.

60 For example on a map of Tartaria by Jodocus Hondius (1613). This map appears in Schüler, Die Geschichte der Kartographie, pp. 130–131.

61 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XII; Huang Shijian and Gong Yingyan, Li Madou shijie ditu yanjiu, p. 195.

62 Shinmura Izuru, Kōjien, s.v. Shitsui 室韋.

63 Nagakubo Sekisui, Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu 地球万国山海輿地全図説 (Edo 1788). For a scan of the copy in the UBC Library, see UBC Library, “Chikyū bankoku sankai yochi zenzusetsu”, in UBC Library Digital Collections, 2006, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

64 Kokushi daijiten henshū iinkai 国史大辞典委員会,, Kokushi daijiten 国史大辞典 (Tokyo: Yoshikawakō bunkan, 1979), s.v. Orankai 兀良哈; Unno Kazutaka, “Cartography in Japan”, p. 379.

65 Unno Kazutaka, “‘Bankoku sekai igyōzu’ ni tsuite”, p. 394.

66 Henry Yule, (ed.), The Book of Ser Marco Polo, the Venetian, Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East. Translated and Edited with Notes, by Colonel Sir Henry Yule, Re.E., CB, K.C.S.I., Corr. Inst. France. Vol. 1 (Third ed., revised… by Henri Cordier; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1929), pp. 188–191.

67 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 16.

68 The length of one ri varied in early modern Japan depending on the region. In the Meiji era the length of one ri was standardized, corresponding to about 3927 m. See Kokushi daijiten henshū iinkai, Kokushi daijiten, s.v. ri 里.

69 Wallis, “Influence of Father Ricci”, p. 45.

70 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 479.

71 Kate Lowe, “‘Representing’ Africa: Ambassadors and Princes from Christian Africa to Renaissance Italy and Portugal, 1402–1608”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, sixth ser. 17 (2007), p. 107; W. G. L. Randles, “South-East Africa as Shown on Selected Printed Maps of the Sixteenth Century”, Imago Mundi 13 (1956), p. 74.

72 Ibid., p. 79.

73 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XXII.

74 Hendrik Hondius, Africæ nova tabula (Amsterdam, 1631). For a reproduction of this map owned by the Northwestern Univ. Library in Illionois, see Northwestern Univ. Library, “Africae nova tabula”, in Digitized Collections, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

75 Randles, “South-East Africa”, pp. 82, 84; Merriam-Webster, Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, s.v. Delagoa Bay, Umbeluzi.

76 I. Hrbek, (ed.), General History of Africa. III. Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. Abridged Edition (Paris: UNESCO, 1992), p. 281.

77 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XX.

78 Merriam-Webster, Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, s.v. Malindi.

79 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XXIV.

80 Merriam-Webster, Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, s.v. Biafra, Bight of.

81 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XXIV; Huang Shijian and Gong Yingyan, Li Madou shijie ditu yanjiu, p. 187.

82 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 478; Merriam-Webster, Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, s.v. Barbary.

83 Charles Daniels, The Garamantes of Southern Libya (Stoughton, Wisconsin: The Oleander Pr., 1970), pp. 11, 17–18.

84 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, pp. 47–48.

85 “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 46.

86 Ramsay, No Longer on the Map, pp. 53–76.

87 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 16.

88 Kawamura Hirotada 川村博忠, Kinsei Nihon no sekaisō 近世曰本の世界像 (Tōkyō: Perikansha, 2003), p. 89.

89 D'Elia, Il mappamondo cinese, tavola XXIV.

90 Klaproth, “Notice”, p. 478.

91 Aoyama Hiroo 青山宏夫, Zenkindai chizu no kūkan to chi 前近代地図の空間と知 (Tōkyō: Azekura Shobō, 2007), p. 52.

92 Lionel Giles, “Translations from the Chinese World Map of Father Ricci”, The Geographical Journal 52.6 (1918), p. 378. On the 1594 version of his map there is a mark: “Pygmei 4 pedes longi hic habitare dicuntur.”

93 Wallis, “Influence of Father Ricci”, p. 45.

94 The furigana of this kanji are very hard to read. The first looks rather like a wo or a to. However, the kana ke derived from the kanji tsukau 遣 may look similar. The yo of yori is also very hard to identify.

95 Toby has already translated this text. But his translation bears some problems and he translated the furigana of another version, therefore I have retranslated the text. Moreover, he claims to have used a version of 1647 owned by Kyoto University. It was not possible for me to find out which version he refers to. Unno lists no such map in the Kyoto collection. Finally, the 1671 version seems to be the only one with furigana. See Toby, “Three Realms / Myriad Countries”, p. 42 n. 38; Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, pp. 33–41. Besides Toby's translation, there is also a rough summary of the text in Kawamura Hirotada, Kinsei Nihon no sekaisō, p. 88.

96 The translation of this sentence is difficult. I follow Kawamura, who transcribes the passage as: “The local differences of clothes, weapons and nature of products are too big to explain them fully.” See Kawamura Hirotada, Kinsei Nihon no sekaisō, p. 88. He adds the verb “to explain.” The meaning of the sentence here is that the differences are too big to show everything on this map, so that this map can only serve as an introduction.

97 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 45.

98 For the citation: ibid., p. 44. Differences to the 1671 version marked by the author.

99 Ibid., p. 16.

100 Those annotations were already transcribed by Nakamura. Differences between his and my transcription are marked. See Nakamura Hiroshi, “Nanban byōbu sekaizu no kenkyū”, pp. 243–245.

101 Nakamura reads kirikudaki. Ibid., p. 243.

102 Here I follow Nakamura. There is only one small stroke between ni and ru, which can hardly be distinguished as a kana. However, Nakamura reads ni yori instead of ni yoru, although the last kana is without doubt a ru. Ibid., p. 244.

103 Pierre Humbertclaude, “A propos de la mappemonde du P. Ricci”, Monumenta Nipponica 3.2 (1940), p. 645.

104 Unno Kazutaka, “Addendum to the Reprint of ‘Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu’ no seiritsu to rufu 正保干刊「万国総図」の 成立と流布”’, in Tōzai chizu bunka kōshōshi kenkyū 東西地図文化交史研究 (Ōsaka: Seibundō, 2003), pp. 382-383.

105 Ibid., p. 383.

106 Cordell D. K. Yee, “Traditional Chinese Cartography and the Myth of Westernization”, in Harley and Woodward, The History of Cartography, p. 175.

107 Wallis, “Influence of Father Ricci”, p. 45. According to Wallis this might be a form of the older Portuguese name Cabo das Tormentas.

108 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, p. 42.

109 I used Nakamura's tables for comparison, who noted the place names of all screens known to him. See Nakamura Hiroshi, “Nanban byōbu sekaizu no kenkyū”, pp. 46–49, 139–153, 230–234.

110 Wallis, “Influence of Father Ricci”, p. 45.

111 In addition to these three, two other screens carry pictures of people; one is in the Kōsetsu Museum, where it forms a combined set with a depiction of the battle of Lepanto; the other, owned by the Kōbe City Museum, shows four cities and appears in a set with a world map screen. However, these screens only display sixteen and four different types of people, respectively; therefore, we can ignore them as possible sources. See Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, pp. 17–21.

112 Ibid., p. 17; Nakamura Hiroshi, “Nanban byōbu sekaizu no kenkyū”, p. 236, plate 25.

113 Unno Kazutaka, “Shōhōkan ‘Bankoku sōzu”’, pp. 17–21.

114 Ibid., p. 20.

115 Günter Schilder, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica III. Twee Wandkaarten van de Wereld van Blaeu: 1619 en 1645/46. Two Wall-maps of the World by Blaeu: 1619 and 1645/46 (Alphen aan den Rijn: Canaletto, 1990), pp. 133–145; Muroga Nobuo 室賓信矢, Kochizushō. Nihon no chizu no ayumi古地図抄.日本の地図の歩 み (Tōkyō: Tōkai Daigaku Shuppankai, 1983), p. 59. For a detailed history of these decorative elements, or “borders”, see Schilder's chapter “The Development of Decorative Borders on Dutch Wall Maps before 1619”, in Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica III, pp. 115–148.

116 The only complete version of the 1607 map was lost during World War II, only a photo of poor quality photo has survived However, Blaeu used the same copper plates for the “frames” of his 1645/1646 map, so that one can guess how these pictures looked on the 1607 version. Also, 20 of the 30 pictures are identical on the 1605 version of the map. Ibid., pp. 57, 63, 149, 161.

117 Those are found in chapters 12–14 of the section on people (renwu 人物). See Wang Qi 王圻, Sancai tuhui (Taipei: Chengwen chubanshe, 1970), pp. 822–878.

118 Ibid., renwu, j. 12, 4a, 6a, 19a.

119 Ibid., renwu, j. 12, 9a.

120 Ibid., renwu, j. 14, 11a.

121 This manuscript was acquired and studed by C. R. Boxer in his “A Late Sixteenth-Century Manila MS”, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1/2 (1950), pp. 37–49. It is now in the possession of Indana University. For a full scan of the manuscript, see Indana Univ. “Boxer Codex”, in Indiana University Digital Library, 2009, (last accessed 14.10.2013).

122 Boxer, “Manila MS”, p. 45.

123 Cited after Nakamura Hiroshi, “Nanban byōbu sekaizu no kenkyū”, p. 243. Characters changed to their tradtional form by the author.

124 Shinmura Izuru, Kōjien, s.v. kōryō 峻竜.

125 Wang Qi, Sancai tuhui, renwu, j. 14, 11a.

126 Details in Roderich Ptak, Exotische Vögel: Chinesische Beschreibungen und Importe (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2006), p. 48.

127 Ayusawa Shintarō 鮎澤信太郎,, “Sekai chiri no bu 世界地理の部”, in Kaikoku hyakunen kinen bunka jigyōkai 開国百年記念文化事業会 (ed.), Sakoku jidai Nihonjin no kaigai chishiki. Sekai chiri, Seiyōshi ni kansuru nunken kaidai 鎖国時代日本人の海外知識. 世界地理 ,西洋史に関する文献解題 (Tokyo: Harashobō, 1978), pp. 209–210.


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