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Between Global and Regional Aspirations: China's Maritime Frontier and the Fujianese in the Early Seventeenth Century

Pages 197 - 217



1 The authors of the present article only cite selected secondary works; this mostly concerns literature on Chinese activities in the maritime world Older works, including certain “standard” books and articles, for example by Fu Yiling 傅衣凌 and Tian Rukang 田汝康, are not, or very rarely, quoted.

2 Silk and silver: The standard works by Okamoto Yoshitomo 岡本良知, Quan Hansheng 全漢昇 Charles R. Boxer, William S. Atwell, George Bryan Souza and others are well-known and need not to be listed here. Some of the titles quoted below also carry data on silk silver and other commodities.

3 For Chinese sailing to and residing in Japan, see, for example: Kobata Atsushi 小葉田淳, Kingin bōekishi no kenkyū 金銀貿易史の研究 (Tokyo: Hōsei daigaku shuppan kyoku, 1976), esp. pp. 243–283; Robert Leroy Innes, The Door Ajar: Japans Foreign Trade in Seventeenth Century (Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan, 1980; unpublished doctorial dissertation), esp. tables on pp. 379–380, 416–417, 635–636; Li Xianzhang 李獻璋, Nagasaki Tōjin no kenkyū 長崎唐人の研究 (Sasebo: Shinwa ginkō, 1991); Sakuma Shigeo 佐久間重男, Nichimin kankeishi no kenkyu 日明関係史の研究 (Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1992), pp. 322–345; Marius B. Jansen, Chinese in the Tokugawa World (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1992); Patrizia Carioti, “The Origins of the Chinese Community of Nagasaki, 1571–1635”, Ming Qing yanjiu 14 (2006), pp. 1–34 For the Chinese in Manila, see, for example, Juan Gil, Los Chinos en Manila. Siglos XVI y XVII (Lisbon: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau, 2011). Gil's account surpasses the older work by Pierre Chaunu, Les Philippines et le Pacifique des Ibériques (XVIe, XVIIe, XVIIIe siècles). Introduction méthodologique et indices d'activité (Paris: S. E. V. P. E. N, 1960), which contains many statistics. For a broader perspective recently also several sections in John E. Wills (ed), China and Maritime Europe, 1500–1800: Trade, Settlement, Diplomacy, and Missions (New York, etc.: Cambridge University Press, 2011).

4 For the Japanese overseas the many works by Iwao Seiichi 岩生成一 are still important. See his Shuinsen bōekishi no kenkyū 朱印船貿易史の研究 (Tokyo: Kōbundō, 1958; later revised), Nanyō Nihon machi no kenkyū 南洋日本町の研究 (Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1966), and “Japanese Foreign Trade in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries”, Acta Asiatica 30 (1976), pp. 1–18.

5 Many studies deal with these issues. See, for example, Chang Pin-tsun (Zhang Bincun 張彬村), Chinese Maritime Trade: The Case of Sixteenth Century Fu-chien (Fukien) (Princeton: Princeton University, 1983; unpublished doctorial dissertation), pp. 184 et seq.; in short form, relevant chapters in Xie Bizhen 謝必震, Ming Qing Zhong Liu hanghai maoyi yanjiu 明清中琉航海貿易研究 (Beijing: Haiyang chubanshe, 2004). For competition among different groups, see, for example, R. P., “The Fujianese, Ryukyuans and Portuguese (c. 1511 to 1540s): Allies or Competitors?”, Anais de História de Além-Mar 3 (2002), pp. 447–467.

6 Modern European language works on Zheng Zhilong and Zheng Chenggong abound. Here we only give some titles: Ralph C. Crozier, Koxinga and Chinese Nationalism: History, Myth, and the Hero (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1977); John E. Wills, Jr., “Maritime China from Wang Chih to Shih Lang: Themes in Peripheral History”, in Jonathan D. Spence and Wills (eds.), From Ming to Ch'ing. Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth Century China (New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Pr., 1979), esp. pp. 217 et seq.; Gabriele Foccardi (ed.), The Last Warrior. The Life of Cheng Ch'eng-kung, the Lord of the “Terrace Bay”. A Study on the T'ai-wan wai-chih (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1986); Leonard Blussé, “Minnan-jen or Cosmopolitan? The Rise of Cheng Chih-lung alias Nicolas Iquan”, in Eduard B. Vermeer (ed.), Development and Decline of Fukien Province in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1990), pp. 245–264; relevant sections in Lynn Struve, The Southern Ming, 1644–1662 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Pr., 1984), and her contribution to Frederick W. Mote and Dennis Twitchett (eds.), Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty. Part I (Cambridge, etc.: Cambridge Univ. Pr., 1988), esp. pp. 666 et seq., 710 et seq.; Patrizia Carioti, Zheng Chenggong (Napoli: Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, 1995), and “The Zheng's Maritime Power in the International Context of the 17th Century Far Eastern Seas: The Rise of a ‘Centralized Piratical Organization’ and Its Gradual Development into an Informal ‘State’, Ming Qing yanjiu 5 (1996), pp. 29–67; Jonathan Clements, Pirate King: Coxinga and the Fall of the Ming Dynasty (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 2004).

7 See, Liu Jun 劉軍, “Mingdai haishang maoyi de chukou shangpin” 明代海上貿易的出口商品, Caijing wenti yanjiu 財經問題研究 12 (2010), p. 24; Xu Xiaowang 徐曉望, “Wan Ming Riben shichang de kaituo ji xianzhi” 晚明日本市場的開拓及限制, Zhonggong Fujian shengwei dangxiao xuebao 中共福建省委黨校學報 6 (2010), pp. 77–78; Zhu Delan 朱德蘭, “Qing kai hailing hou de Zhong Ri Changqi maoyishang yu guonei yan'an maoyi” 清開海令後的中日長崎貿易商與國内沿岸貿易, in Zhang Yanxian, 張炎憲 (ed), Zhongguo haiyang fazhanshi lunwenji 中國海洋發展史論文集, vol. 3 (Taibei: Academia Sinica, 1988), pp. 370–375. For a larger panorama, also, see, for example, Li Longsheng 李隆生, Ming houqi haiwai maoyi de tantao 明後期海外貿易的探討 (Shanghai: Fudan University, 2004; unpublished doctorial dissertation); Jing Xiaoyan 荊曉燕, Ming Qing zhi ji Zhong Ri maoyi yanjiu 明清之際中日貿易研究 (Ji'nan: Shandong University, 2008; unpublished doctorial dissertation).

8 For example, Chang Pin-tsun, Chinese Maritime Trade, p. 271.

9 Works with references to or detailed accounts of massacres include the following titles: (1) For Taiwan – Lian Heng 連衡, Taiwan tongshi 臺灣通史, 2 vols. (Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan, 1983; earlier Taibei: Zhongwen tushu gongsi, 1979), I, pp. 15–16; Xu Xiaowang 徐曉望 et al. (author/ed.),Fujian tongshi 福建通史, 5 vols. (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chubanshe, 2006), IV, pp. 464–465; Qi Jialin 戚嘉林, Taiwan shi 台灣史 (rev. ed. Taibei: Haixia xueshu chubanshe, 2008), pp. 61–72; Johannes Huber, “Chinese Settlers against the Dutch East India Company: The Rebellion Led by Kuo Huai-i on Taiwan in 1652”, in Vermeer (ed), Development and Decline, pp. 265–290. (2) For Manila – Albert Chan, “Chinese-Philippine Relations in the Late Sixteenth Century and to 1603”, Philippine Studies 26 (1978), pp. 51–82; José Eugenio Borao Mateo, “Percepciones chinas sobre los españoles de Filipinas: la massacre de 1603”, Revista española del Pacífico 8 (1998), pp. 233–254; Gil, Los Chinos en Manila, esp. pp. 149 et seq., pp. 467 et seq. (3) For Batavia – Johannes T. Vermeulen, De Chineezen en Batavia en de troebelen van 1740 (Leiden: N. V. Boek- en Steendrukkerij Eduard Ijdo, 1938); Willem Remmelink, The Chinese War and the Collapse of the Javanese State 1725–1743 (Leiden: KITLV Press, 1994 年); various works by A. R. T. Kemasang.

10 Recently on the war between Zheng Chenggong and the VOC: Tonio Andrade, Lost Colony. The Untold Story of Chinas First Great Victory over the West (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton Univ. Pr., 2011). Also see his How Taiwan Became Chinese. Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century (New York: Columbia Univ. Pr., 2008; and “gutenberg e-book”), pp. 240–244. Among the many Chinese works one finds, for example, Jiang Shusheng 江樹生, Zheng Chenggong he Helan ren zai Taiwan de zui hou yi zhan ji huanwen dihe 鄭成功和荷蘭人在臺灣的最後一戰及换文締和 (Taibei: Hansheng zazhi she, 1992), and Tang Yunxuan 湯韻旋, Zheng Chenggong shoufu Taiwan 鄭成功收服臺灣 (Fuzhou: Fujian jiaoyu chubanshe, 2007). Older works include: Samuel Kalff, “De val van Formosa”, De Gids 61 (1897), pp. 104–138; Charles R. Boxer, “The Siege of Fort Zeelandia and the Capture of Formosa from the Dutch, 1661–1662”, Transactions and Proceedings of the Japan Society of London 24 (1927), pp. 15–47. – An important primary source is C. G. Molewijk (introduction and comment), 't Verwaerloosde Formosa, of waerachting verhael, hoedanigh door verwaerloosinge der Nederlanders in Oost-Indien, het Eylandt Formosa, van den Chinesen Mandorijn, ende Zeeroover Coxinja, overrompelt, vermeestert, ende ontweldight is geworden (Zutphen: Walburg Pers, 1991). – Also see R. P., “Zur Befreiung Taiwans vom holländischen Joch: Die Vertreibung der Niederländer durch Zheng Chenggong vor 350 Jahren”, Saeculum 62.1 (2012), pp. 113–134.

11 For Fuzhou, see, for example, Tang Wenji 唐文基 (ed.), Fujian gudai jingjishi 福建古代經濟史 (Fuzhou: Fujian jiaoyu chubanshe, 1995), pp. 484–485, 607–614; Fuzhougang shizhi bianji weiyuanhui 福州港史志編輯委員會 (ed.), Fuzhougang shi 福州港史 (Beijing: Renmin chubanshe, 1996), pp. 36–72. For Xinghua and Putian: Edward B. Vermeer, “The Decline of Hsing-hua Prefecture in the Early Ch'ing”, in same (ed.), Development and Decline, pp. 101–161.

12 For the sea routes, especially the eastern route, see, for example, J. V. G. Mills, “Chinese Navigators in Insulinde, about A.D. 1500”, Archipel 18 (1979), pp. 69–93; Zeng Shaocong 曾少聰, Dongyang hanglu yimin. Ming Qing haiyang yimin Taiwan yu Feilübin de bijiao yanjiu 東洋航路移民. 明清海洋移民台灣與菲律賓的比較研究 (Nanchang: Jiangxi gaojiao chubanshe, 1998); Yang Guozhen 楊國楨, Min zai hai zhong Zhuixun Fujian haiyang fazhanshi 閩在海中. 追尋福建海洋發展史 (Nanchang: Jiangxi gaojiao chubanshe, 1998); R. P., “Jottings on Chinese Sailing Routes to Southeast Asia, Especially on the Eastern Route in Ming Times”, in Jorge M. dos Santos Alves (ed), Portugal e a China. Conferências nos encontros de história luso-chinesa (Lisbon: Fundação Oriente, 2001), pp. 107–131; Liu Yingsheng, “The Taiwan Strait between the Twelfth and Sixteenth Centuries and the Maritime Route to Luzon” Journal of Asian History 46.2 (2012), pp. 167–180. – In that context one may also mention new research on the Shunfeng xiangsong 順風相送 (a book on navigation) and a recently discovered Chinese map in Oxford. See, for example, Zhang Rong 張榮 and Liu Yijie 劉義傑, “‘Shunfeng xiangsong’ jiaokan ji biancheng niandai xiaokao” ‘順風相送’ 校勘及編成年代小考, Guojia hanghai 國家航海 3 (2012); Qian Jiang 錢江,, “Yi fu xin faxian de Mingchao zhongye caihui hanghai tu” 一幅新發現的明朝中葉彩繪航海圖,, Haijiaoshi yanjiu 交史研究 59 (2011), pp. 1–7; Guo Yusheng 郭育生 and Liu Yijie, “‘Dongxi hanghai tu’ chengtu shijian chutan” ‘東西洋航海圖’ 成圖時間初探, Haijiaoshi yanjiu 60 (2011), pp. 67–81; Tang Jintai 湯錦台, Minnan haishang diguo – Minnan ren yu Nanhai wenming de xingqi 閩南海上帝國 — 閩南人與南海文明的興起 (Taibei, etc.: Ruguo chuban shiye gufen youxian gongsi, 2013), appendix; Robert Batchelor, “The Selden Map Rediscovered: A Chinese Map of East Asian Shipping Routes, c. 1619”, Imago Mundi 65.1 (2013), pp. 37–63.

13 For Yuegang/Haicheng and Xiamen, see, for example, Chen Ziqiang 陳自强 “Shi lun Mingdai Zhangzhou Yuegang de lishi diwei” 試論明代漳州月港的歷史地位, Haijiaoshi yanjiu 5 (1983), pp. 90–97; Chang Pin-tsun, Chinese Maritime Trade, esp. pp. 257 et seq.; Ng Chin-Keong Trade and Society. The Amoy Network on the China coast, 1683–1735 (Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1983); Tang Wenji, Fujian gudai jingjishi, pp. 615–622; Zheng Yong 鄭鏞 (ed.), Huashuo Zhangzhou: Lishi huimou 話說漳州: 歷史回眸 (Fuzhou: Haichao sheying yishu chubanshe, 2003), pp. 45–56; several articles in Zhonggong Longxi diwei xuanchuanbu, Fujiansheng lishi xuehui Xiamen fenhui 中共龍溪地委宣傳部, 福建省歷史學會廈門分會 (ed), Yuegang yanjiu lunwenji 月港研究論文集 (Xiamen: Fujiansheng lishixue hui Xiamen fenhui, 1983).

14 There are many works on Shi Lang. Some examples: Shi Weiqing 施偉青, Shi Lang pingzhuan 施琅評傳 (Xiamen: Xiamen daxue chubanshe, 1987); same Shi Lang nianpu kaolüe 施琅年譜考略 (Changsha: Yuelu chubanshe, 1998); same (ed), Shi Lang yanjiu 施琅研究 (Xiamen: Xiamen daxue chubanshe, 2000); Xie Bilian 謝碧蓮, Shi Lang gong Taiwan 施琅攻臺灣 (Taibei: Tainan xian wenhua ju, 2004). There are also several serial volumes entitled Shi Lang yanjiu, by different publishers.

15 Bodo Wiethoff, Chinas dritte Grenze. Der traditionelle chinesische Staat und der küstennahe Seeraum (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1969), discusses spatial, conceptual, terminological and other aspects of China's coastal management. There are many more recent works which provide similar details, but these are not listed here.

16 One “classical” study is Xie Guozhen 謝國楨, “Qing chu dongnan yanhai qianjie kao” 清初東南沿海遷界考, Guoli Beijing daxue guoxue jikan 國立北京大學國學季刊 2.4 (1930), pp. 797–826. Also see, for example, Zhu Delan, “Qing chu qianjieling shi Zhongguo chuan haishang maoyi zhi yanjiu” 清初遷界令時中國船海上貿易之研究, in Zhang Yanxian (ed), Zhongguo haiyang fazhanshi lunwenji, vol. 1 (Taibei: Academia Sinica, 1986), pp. 105–159.

17 See, for example, Lian Xinhao 連心豪, Zhongguo haiguan yu duiwai maoyi 中國海關與對外貿易 (Changsha: Yuelu shushe, 2004), pp. 36–64. Liao Dake 廖大珂, Fujian haiwai jiaotong shi 福建海外交通史 (Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chubanshe, 2002), to cite a second example, emphasizes other dimensions; see pp. 304 et seq., there.

18 For these ports, see, for example, Liao Laibao 廖來保 (ed.), Chaozhou erqiannian 潮州二千年 (Chaozhou: Chaozhoushi difangzhi bangongshi, 1991), pp. 31–97; Zhang Zhenzhong 張鎮中, Zhongguo renmin zhengzhi xieshang huiyi, etc. 中國人民政治恊商會議 …, Wenzhou difang shigao 溫州地方史稿 (Wenzhou: Zhongguo renmin chubanshe, Zhejiangsheng Wenzhoushi Luchengqu weiyuanhui chubanshe 1993), pp. 197–266; Wan Ming 萬明, “Mingdai Jiajin nianjian de Ningbogang” 明代嘉靖年間的寧波港, Haijiaoshi yanjiu 42 (2002), pp. 60–69; Le Chengyao 樂承耀, “Lun xingzheng quanli dui Mingdai Ningbo haiwai maoyi de yingxiang” 論行政權力對明代寧波海外貿易的影響, Ningbo daxue xuebao 寧波大學學報 16.1 (2003), pp. 81–84; Tang Wenji, Fujian gudai jingjishi, pp. 626–629; Zhang Bincun, “Shiliu shiji Zhoushan qundao de zousi maoyi” 十六世紀舟山群島的走私貿易, in Zhang Yanxian (ed), Zhongguo haiyang fazhanshi lunwenji, vol. 1 (Taibei: Academia Sinica, 1983), pp. 71–96.

19 For Hideyoshi and his invasion, see, for example, Maria Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr., 1989); Kitajima Manji 北島万次, Toyotomi Hideyoshi no Chōsen shinryaku 豊臣秀吉の朝鮮侵略 (Tokyo: Yoshikawa kōbunkan, 1995); Stephen Turnbull, Samurai Invasion: Japan's Korean War 1592–98 (London: Cassell & Co, 2002).

20 For the Japanese and Taiwan, see, for example, Iwao Seiichi 岩生成一 (tr. Xu Xianyao 許賢瑤), “Zai Taiwan de Riben ren” 在臺灣的日本人, in Naojirô Murakami 村上直次郎 et al. (eds.), Helan shidai Taiwan shi lunwenji 荷蘭時代台灣史論文集 (Yilan: Foguang renwen shehui xueyuan, 2001), pp. 155–185; Andrade, How Taiwan Became Chinese, pp. 48–53. For Japanese plans against Manila: Juan Gil, Hidalgos y samurais. España y Japón en los siglos XVI y XVII (Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1991), pp. 36 et seq.; Manel Ollé, Estrategias filipinas respecto a China: Alonso Sanchez y Domingo Salazar en la empresa de China (1581–1593), 2 vols. (Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 1998; unpublished doctorial dissertation), I, pp. 92–93. Also see relevant sections in some of the works in n. 28 here.

21 For Ryukyu-Korea, see, for example, S. M. Hong-Schunka, “An Aspect of East Asian Maritime Trade: The Exchange of Commodities between Korea and Ryukyu (1389–1638)”, in Angela Schottenhammer (ed.), Trade and Transfer Across the East Asian Mediterranean (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pp. 125–161, esp. p. 128. For sulphur and other commodities shipped from Ryukyu to China: Chang Chinese Maritime Trade, esp. table on pp. 355–357. There are many useful statistics related to Ryukyu's foreign relations; one source is Seiki Akamine 赤嶺誠紀, Daikōkai jidai no Ryūkyū 大航海時代の琉球 (Naha: Okinawa Taimususha, 1988).

22 An early English work on Satsuma's policy towards Ryukyu is Mitsugu Matsuda, The Government of the Kingdom of Ryukyu, 1609–1872 (Okinawa: Yui Shuppan Co., 2001; originally a doctorial dissertation, 1967).

23 For the Dutch on Penghu, see, for example, Leonard Blussé, “The Dutch Occupation of the Pescadores (1622–1624)”, Transactions of the International Conference of Orientalists in Japan 18 (1973), pp. 28–44; Lin Weisheng 林偉盛, “Helan ren ju Penghu shimo” 荷蘭人據澎湖始末, Guoli zhengzhi daxue lishi xuebao 國立政治大學歷史學報 16 (1999), pp. 1–45; Wang Yaohua 王耀華 and Xie Bizhen (eds.), Min Tai haishang jiaotong yanjiu 閩台海上交通研究 (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe, 2000), pp. 25–30; Naojirô Murakami (tr. Xu Xianyao), “Penghu dao shang de Helan ren” 澎湖島上的荷蘭人, in same et al. (eds.), Helan shidai Taiwan shi lunwenji, pp. 1–21; Yang Yanjie 楊彦傑, Heju shidai Taiwan shi 荷據時代台灣史 (Taibei: Lianjing chuban shiye gongsi, 2010), pp. 6–32. For the history of Penghu more generally: Cai Pingli 蔡平立, Penghu tongshi 澎湖通史 (originally Taibei: Zhongwen tushu gufen youxian gongsi, 1959; new ed Taibei: Lianming chubanshe, 1985). Important documents in Xia Deyi 夏德儀 (comp.), Ming ji Helan ruqin ju Penghu candang 明季荷蘭入侵據澎湖殘檔 (Taibei: Datong shuju, 1984).

24 This is reflected, for example, in the number of incoming Chinese ships. See the relevant statistics in Chaunu, Les Philippines et le Pacifique des Ibériques; Gil, Los Chinos en Manila, appendix V; Leonard Blussé, Strange Company. Chinese Settlers, Mestizo Women and the Dutch in VOC Badavia (Dordrecht/Riverton: Foris Publications, 1986), pp. 115 et seq., especially tables on pp. 120 and 123 (annual averages: Chinese ships going to Batavia, from different locations).

25 See, for example, the relevant parts in Helga Gemegah, Die Theorie des spanischen Jesuiten José de Acosta (ca. 1540–1600) über den Ursprung der indianischen Völker aus Asien (Frankfurt etc.: Peter Lang GmbH, Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1999); Manel Ollé, La invención de China. Percepciones y estrategias filipinas respecto a China durante el siglo XVI (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2000), and Estrategias filipinas respecto a China.

26 Recently on the Spanish and Taiwan: José Eugenio Borao Mateo, The Spanish Experience in Taiwan, 1626–1642. The Baroque Ending of a Renaissance Endeavor (Hongkong: Hong Kong Univ. Pr., 2009). And in “short form”: Manel Ollé, “Castillians in the North of Taiwan: Frontier Interactions at Ilha Hermosa”, in Angela Schottenhammer (ed), Taiwan – A Bridge Between the East and South China Seas (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2011), pp. 57–73.

27 For Japan-Luzon and Zheng-Luzon relations, see, for example, the relevant sections in Zheng Ruiming 鄭瑞明, “Taiwan Ming Zheng yu Dongnanya zhi maoyi guanxi chutan: Fazhan Dongnanya maoyi zhi dongji shiwu ji waishang zhi qianlai 臺灣明鄭與東南亞之貿易關傒初探: 發展東南亞貿易之動機實務及外商之前來, Lishi xuebao 歷史學報 14 (1987), pp. 57–108; Gil, Hidalgos; Fang Zhenzhen 方真真, Ming mo Qing chu Taiwan yu Manila de fanchuan maoyi (1664–1684) 明末清初臺灣與馬尼拉的帆船貿易 (1664–1684) (Taibei: Daw Shiang 2006); Nakajima Gakushō 中島楽章, “Jūroku seiki matsu no Fukken Philippine Kyūshū no bōeki” 十六世纪末の福建 – フィリピン – 九州貿易, Shien 史淵 144 (2007), pp. 55–92; same “The Invasion of Korea and Trade with Luzon: Katō Kiyomasa's Scheme of the Luzon Trade in the Late Sixteenth Century”, in Angela Schottenhammer (ed.), The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce and Human Migration (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2008), pp. 145–168 (a special chapter of these “contacts”); Gil, Los Chinos en Manila.

28 See, for example, Domingo Abella, “Koxinga Nearly Ended Spanish Rule in the Philippines in 1662”, Philippine Historical Review 2.1 (1969), pp. 295–334; Lee Yuchung 李毓中, “Ming Zheng yu Xibanya diguo: Zheng shi jiazu yu Feilübin guanxi chutan” 明鄭與西班牙帝國: 鄭氏家族與菲律賓關傒初探 Hanxue yanjiu 漢學研究 16.2 (1998), pp. 29–59; and references in some of the titles listed in the previous note. – The issue of information is also important in the well-known case of Lin Feng 林鳳 (Limahong).

29 These questions still deserve detailed research. For some suggestions related to special cases, see for example, Watanabe Miki, “The International Maritime Trader – Torihara Sōan: The Agent for Tokugawa Ieyasu's First Negotiations with Ming China, 1600”, in Schottenhammer (ed), The East Asian Mediterranean, pp. 169–176, and Schottenhammer's own contribution to that volume, pp. 376–377.

30 For the massacres in Manila, see relevant works in n. 9, above.

31 Chinese materials on the relations between Sulu and the Ming and Qing are collected in: Zhongshan daxue Dongnanya lishi yanjiu suo 中山大學東南亞歷史研究所 (ed), Zhongguo guji zhong youguan Feilübin ziliao huibian 中國古籍中有關菲律賓資料滙編 (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1980). – More generally, one may also consult the “classical studies” by Najeeb M. Saleeby and Cesar Adib Majul, for example Saleeby's The History of Sulu, Filipiana Book Guild 4 (Manila, 1963), esp. ch. 2 and 3; Majul's Muslims in the Philippines (2nd ed Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press, 1973), and “An Analysis of the ‘Genealogy of Sulu’”, in Ahmad Ibrahim et al. (eds.), Readings on Islam in Southeast Asia, Social Issues in Southeast Asia (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1985), pp. 48–57.

32 For such maps and their interpretation, see, for example, relevant sections in Gemegah, Die Theorie. There are many works on this fascinating theme, which Gemegah addressed in later research.

33 See, for example, Xu Xiaowang, “Lun Zheng Chenggong fu Tai zhi ji Taiwan de falü diwei” 論鄭成功复臺之際臺灣的法律地位, Fujian luntan: renwen shehui kexue ban 福建論壇: 人文社会科学版 10 (2012), pp. 118 et seq.

34 For a comparative view, see R. P. “Comparing the Incomparable: Some Thoughts on 17th Century Macau and Fort Zeelandia”, Aomen yanjiu 澳門研究 / Boletim do Estudos de Macau / Journal of Macau Studies 51 (2009), pp. 1–11. Also in Luís Filipe Barreto and Wu Zhilang (eds.), Port Cities and Intercultural Relations, 15th-18th Centuries (Lisbon: Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau und Fundação Macau, 2012), pp. 33–51. For impressionistic “additions”, see R. P. (tr. from German), “Portugal and China: An Anatomy of Harmonious Coexistence (Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries)”, in Laura Jarnagin (ed), Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511–2011. Vol. 2: Culture and Identity in the Luso-Asian World: Tenacities and Plasticities (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012), pp. 225–242.

35 Recently on the jingtian question: relevant sections in João de Deus Ramos, Portugal e a Ásia Oriental (Lisbon: Fundação Oriente, 2012).


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